Iconic view of the Pantheon in Rome, showcasing its impressive dome and timeless architecture.

This is truly one of my favorite buildings in Rome! With its iconic dome and centuries-old history, the Pantheon stands as a testament to the ingenuity of Roman engineering and the enduring allure of classical design. Even Michelangelo stated that it could have only been built by angels when he first came upon it.

Early History

This ancient monument was originally built as a pagan temple with origins that can be traced back to 27 BC. However, the one you see today was not the first, several were constructed then destroyed years later. The one we are able to visit now is from 126 AD hailing from Harian’s era. There is little documentation about this building and its origins allowing all kinds of legends and mysteries to surround it.

The name Pantheon originates from the Greek language referring to “all gods” making this a pagan temple. No one really knows what events occurred in the building during its early years. However, in the 7th century the Pantheon was converted to a Christian church and was officially named Basilica di Santa Maria ad Martyres. Converting the building allowed it to be preserved as a Christian temple.

Captivating glimpse of the Pantheon, Rome's architectural marvel with its iconic dome and rich history.

The Pantheon’s Architectural Grandeur

Commissioned by Marcus Agrippa during the reign of Augustus and later rebuilt by Emperor Hadrian around 126 AD, the Pantheon showcases a perfect blend of grandeur and precision. Its iconic dome, with its oculus or central opening, remains the largest unreinforced concrete dome in the world, a testament to the engineering prowess of ancient Rome.

Close-up of the Pantheon's Oculus, a breathtaking architectural feature allowing natural light to illuminate the interior.

The Oculus and the Play of Light

The Pantheon’s dome is not just an architectural feat; it’s a celestial marvel. The oculus, a circular opening at the apex of the dome, allows sunlight to stream into the Pantheon, creating a dynamic interplay of light and shadow. This ingenious design not only enhances the visual appeal but also adds a touch of mystique to the interior. This dome is still the world’s largest unreinforced concrete dome in the world.

To experience the mesmerizing effect of the sunlight streaming through the oculus, plan your visit during midday when the sun is directly overhead.

A Sanctuary for the Gods

Originally dedicated to all Roman gods, the Pantheon has served various purposes throughout its history, including as a church dedicated to St. Mary and the Martyrs since the 7th century. The transformation from a pagan temple to a Christian church adds layers of cultural and religious significance to this architectural gem.

Respectful attire is advisable when visiting the Pantheon, given its dual role as both a historical site and an active church.

View of the Pantheon tombs, showcasing the historical significance and reverence within this iconic Roman structure.

Monumental Engineering Feats

The construction of the Pantheon remains a marvel of ancient engineering. The massive granite columns adorning its façade were transported from Egypt, showcasing the empire’s vast reach. The precision in aligning the columns and crafting the dome reflects the unmatched skills of Roman architects and builders.

While it seems like weather might be a problem, this building has employed incredibly smart technology for its time. Well concealed holes in the floor are used to drain any water that might come in.

The walls of the Pantheon are super thick, 20 feet thick to be precise. Isn’t that crazy! They had to be that thick to support the weight of the massive dome. Archeologists have studied the building extensively and realized that the builders used lighter and lighter materials in the cement the higher up the ceiling went. This allowed the building to sustain all the weight and pressure on it. Incredible isn’t it!?

The concrete mix that was used was a blend of volcanic ash and limestone which grew tiny crystals inside to stop small cracks from forming. Who would have thought?

Take a moment to appreciate the details of the Pantheon’s façade, including the inscription dedicating the temple to Marcus Agrippa.

The Pantheon’s doors are ancient but are not the originals. Studies have shown that the doors you see right now have been there since the 15th century. According to some scholars, the original doors of the Pantheon can be found at the church of St. John of Lateran but no one is entirely sure.

Raphael's tomb in the Pantheon, a tribute to the renowned artist, adorned with artistic elegance and historical significance.

A Gathering Place for History

Throughout the centuries, the Pantheon has witnessed the ebb and flow of history. From hosting notable figures like Raphael to withstanding invasions and disasters, the Pantheon’s resilience enriches its historical and architectural legacy.

Consider exploring the surrounding Piazza della Rotonda, where you can enjoy a leisurely coffee at one of the charming cafes while basking in the Pantheon’s majestic presence.


One cannot help but marvel at the architectural brilliance and historical tapestry that defines this ancient wonder. The Pantheon stands as a living testament to the enduring beauty of classical design, showcasing the might of ancient Rome.

So, fellow seekers of history and architecture, add the Pantheon to your Roman itinerary. Then prepare to be transported to an era where engineering met artistry in perfect harmony.

Helpful Information

Best Time to Visit: A word of warning, this place is always busy! If you want to visit with fewer people consider going at opening time.

Important Information

Pantheon important information


Kristal Ham

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Traveler and Photographer

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